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成人高考学好英语语法小秘籍

  英文和我们中文最大的不同,是在动词,我们中文的动词很简单,没有所谓的第几人称,也没有复数和单数之分,更没有过去式或进行式,英文可不同了,凡是用动词的时候,必须注意很多很多的规则,一旦弄错了,常常是犯了大错。

  在这我要将英文最基本的规则一一列下。这些规则都是我们中国人所常常不注意的。

  为了不要误导读者,凡本书内错误的句子前面都有〝*〞的符号。

  规则(1):两个动词是不能联在一起用的。

  在中文,我们常说“我是爱你的”,翻成英文,这就变成了

  * I am love you.

  滑稽的是,这句英文句子犯了大忌,因为〝am〞是动词,〝love〞也是动词,两个动词是不能联在一起用的。这句话的正确说法是:

  I love you. 或者 I am in love with you.

  我们中国人也会说〝我喜欢看电视〞,翻成英文,这变成

  * I love watch television.

  这个句子也犯了同样的错。

  以下几个句子都是错的,因为这些句子中都有两个动词连在一起的情形:

  I hate eat fish.

  I love play basketball.

  I love swim.

  如果你一定要讲“我爱游泳”,怎么办呢?请看以下的规则。

  规则(2):如一定要同时用两个动词,后者的前面必须加“to”或者将后者加入“ing”。

  “我爱游泳”,因此有两种正确的译法:

  I love to swim.

  I love swimming.

  以下的句子都是正确的:

  I hate to eat fish.

  I hate eating fish.

  I love to play basketball.

  I love playing basketball

  I keep going to church

  规则(3):主词如果是第三人称,现在式及单数,动词必须加s.

  我们中国人最不容易记得的规则,恐怕就是这一条了,以下的句子都是错的。

  * He write very well.

  * Jack love playing the violin.

  * Mary swim every day.

  正确的句子是:

  He writes very well.

  Jack loves playing the violin.

  Mary swims every day.

  规则(4):绝大多数的否定的句子,不能直接加“not”。

  我们中文对否定语气,规则极为简单,我们可以说“我不爱你”,但是我们不能说

  * I not love you.

  我们也不能说:

  * I not saw that movie.

  * I not like swimming.

  * He not likes playing violin.

  我们必须用一种助动词来完成否定的句子,以下才是正确的否定句子:

  I do not love you.

  I did not see that movie.

  He does not like playing violin.

  请注意,在以上的句子中,do和did都是助动词,do是现在式,did是过去式。

  关于现在式和过去式,究竟是怎么一回事,以后我们会解释清楚的。

  助动词不限于“do”和它的变型,can、will、would、shall、may、must等等都是助动词,因此,以下的英文句子又都是对的:

  He can not swim.

  They will not go to church tomorrow.

  Mary should not go to the party.

  I shall not see you.

  He may not go out tonight.

  He must not eat meat any more.

  规则(5):在不定词“to”的后面,必须用原形动词

  英文中的动词,是会变化的,以have为例,第一人称和第三人就不同:

  I have a dog.

  He has a dog.

  如果是过去式,动词又要变化。have的过去式是had,不论第几人称,一概都要用had.

  几乎每一个英文动词的过去式都有变化,以下是几个例子:

  现在式 过去式

  go went

  come came

  eat ate

  play played

  swim swam

  不论那一个动词,都有一个原形动词,一切都是从这个原形动词变出来的,像go、drink、have、walk、love、like等等都是原形动词。

  如果我们有必要要用不定词to,就必须用原形动词,例如to go、to drink、to have,都是正确的,*to went;*to drank;*to loved等等都是错的。

  英文中有一个动词最为麻烦,那就是am、are、is、was、were等等,翻译成中文,这都是,而这些动词的来源都是be,所以我们说这些动词都是verb to be.

  以下的句子都用上了〝be〞

  I want to be a teacher.

  He wants to be a good father.

  They all love to be rich.

  No one likes to be poor.

  规则(6):英文中有所谓的助动词。必须注意

  英文中有很多动词都是助词动,在规则(4)中,我们说在绝大多数的否定语句中,必须用助动词do或did.Do是原形动词,did 和does都是do的变形。

  除了do是助动词以外,can、may、might、will、would、must也都是助动词。

  以上所提到的助动词,都有一个共同的特色,那就是这些助动词后的动词必须是原形动词,以下的句子都是正确的:

  He can swim.

  He does not swim.

  I do not speak English.

  You must walk to work every day.

  I did not work yesterday.

  You may leave now.

  I will go to Taipei tomorrow.

  以下的句子都是错的:

  * I did not went.

  * He does not goes to work.

  * You must walked to work.

  除了以上的助动词以外,还有一个非常特殊的助动词,那就是have,在这个助动词的后面,动词绝对不能用原形动词,以下是用这个助动词的例子:

  I have been to England.

  I have slept all day.

  I have studied English since I was a child.

  been、slept 和studied都是过去分词(past participle),以下的句子也都是现在完成式,我们后讨论完成式的时候,会将这些解释清楚的。

  规则(7):英文问句要有助动词

  我们先看看以下的英文句子,这些都是错的:

  * How many books you wrote?

  * How many sons you have?

  正确的句子是:

  Why do you drink so much water?

  How many books did you write?

  How many sons do you have?

  绝大多数的英文问句子是一定要有助动词,以下全是正确的英文问句,你可以看出每一句的助动词吗?

  Do you love me?

  Did you go to school yesterday?

  How many books do you have?

  How much money does he have?

  Why don‘t you go back home?

  Do you like to swim?

  Can you play violin?

  Will you go home tomorrow?

  Would you give me a call?

  当然啦,一旦动词是verb to be,我们又不需要助动词了,以下都是正确的英文问句:

  Are you a teacher?

  Is he a student?

  Is Mr. Chang your father?

  Were your mother and father in England last year?

  规则(8):特殊动词随主词的变化

  英文中,有些动词因主词不同而改变,verb to be是其中之一,因此,我们必须记得以下的规则:

  第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

  现在式 单数 I am You are (He,She,It)is

  复数 We are You are They are

  过去式 单数 I was You were (He,She,It)was

  复数 We were You were They were

  Verb to have也有类似的变化:

  第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

  现在式 单数 I have You have (He,She,It)has

  复数 We have You have They have

  过去式 单数 I had You had (He,She,It)had

  复数 We had You had They had

  [练习一]

  以下的句子都有错,请将正确的句子写出来:

  1.* I am like my parent.

  2.* He is loves his teacher.

  3.* He keeps swim every day.

  4.* He wants drink a glass of water.

  5.* He likes play violin.

  6.* Jack do not love mathematics.

  7.* Mary hate singing.

  8.* My mother cook very good food.

  9.* He want me to see him tomorrow.

  10.* He not knows my name.

  11.* I not like you.

  12.* He not like swimming.

  13.* You not went home.

  14.* I not like swimming.

  15.* I wanted to went to my mother‘s home.

  16.* I do not like to swimming.

  17.* I did not ate dinner.

  18.* I will not went home.

  19.* He did not went home.

  20.* You may leaving now.

  21.* He can swimming.

  22.* He does not goes to work.

  第二章 现在式和现在进行式

  2§1 现在式

  英文中,现在式(present tense)好像是最容易的,其实现在式都是我们常常用错的时式。

  首先,我们不妨举一个例子来说明我们对现在式惯有的误解,假设我们要说〝我在吃午饭〞,这总该用现在式了吧。很多人将这句话翻成

  I eat lunch.

  这就错了,因为〝I eat lunch.〞的意思并不是〝我在吃午饭〞,而是〝我有吃午饭的习惯〞,意思是说,有人中午不吃午饭(可能是在减肥),我可是每天中午都会吃午饭的。

  〝我在吃午饭〞,应该要用现在进行式,这是我们以后会谈的。

  现在式不是指任何一个行为,而是一种状况。举例来说,以下几句话都应该用现在式:

  我是一个学生 I am a student.

  他是一个老师 He is a teacher.

  他每天游泳 He swims every day.

  汤姆勤奋工作 Tom works hard

  他早起 He gets up early.

  玛莉喜欢看电影 Mary loves watching movies.

  这里常常下雨 It rains often here.

  我每天喝一杯牛奶 I drink a glass of milk every day.

  我是中国人 I am a Chinese.

  他会讲英文 He speaks English.

  他有喝茶的习惯 He drinks tea.

  我骑脚踏车上学 I ride a bicycle to school.

  他搭乘公交车上班 He rides a bus to go to work.

  我不喜欢你 I do not like you.

  他爱他的太太 He loves his wife.

  他守法 He obeys the law.

  我不喜欢莎士比亚 I do not like Shakespeare.

  他不抽烟 He does not smoke.

  他喝酒 He drinks.

  他唱歌唱得很好 He sings well.

  他跳舞跳得很好 He dances well.

  他不会游泳 He can not swim.

  他不是一个好学生 He is not a good student.

  他们都很懒 They are all very lazy.

  凡是真理,自然界的现象,数学里的定理,都要用现在式:

  太阳从东方升起 The sun rises in the east.

  地球是圆的 The earth is round.

  月亮是地球的一个卫星 The moon is a satellite of the earth.

  美国是一个大的国家 America is a large country.

  在北极的夏天,太阳永不落下 The sun never sets at the North Pole in summer.

  树叶吸收二氧化碳 Tree leaves absorb CO2 .

  计算机的基本原理是布尔代数 The basic principle of computers is Boolean algebra

  二点决定一线 Two points define a line.

  三点决定一平面 Three points define a plane.

  三基本颜色是红、黄、蓝 Three of the basic colors are red, yellow and blue.

  [练习二]

  将以下中文句子翻成英文,都用现在式。

  1.他是一个好学生。

  2.我的哥哥17岁。

  3.我弟弟每天游泳。

  4.他们都喜欢音乐。

  5.他们现在在日本。

  6.喜玛拉雅山是全世界最高的山。

  7.亚马孙河是全世界最长的。

  8.他的爸爸是位老师。

  9.我们都喜欢中国菜。

  10.他不喜欢冰淇淋。

  11.我爱你。

  12.每个人都怕蛇。

  13.每个人都喜欢狗。

  14.今天真冷。

  2§2 现在进行式

  假如我们正在做一件事,是不能用现在式的,而必须用现在进行式,现在进行式的形态是:

  verb to be + present participle(现在分词)

  verb to be 大家都懂,什么叫做现在分词呢?现在分词就是

  动词+ing

  以下是现在分词的例子

  动词 现在分词

  work working

  go going

  read reading

  run running

  play playing

  swim swimming

  sing singing

  write writing

  eat eating

  walk walking

  come coming

  love loving

  like liking

  watch watching

  smoke smoking

  如果我们说

  I am watching a movie.

  那是指我现在正在看电影,这和

  I watch movies.

  意义上截然不同的,I watch movies是说我有看电影的习惯。

  因此有些动词是没有现在进行式的,举例来说

  I am loving you.

  是不通的,因为严格说起来,love是一种状态,而不是一个动作。现在进行式,都是指动作,很少指状态的。

  以下是现在进行式的例子:

  I am calling my father.

  He is swimming now.

  He is playing basketball.

  They are all eating now.

  He is walking in the woods now.

  He is reading a detective novel.

  Mr. Brown is driving to work.

  Mrs. Brown is cooking.

  It is raining now.

  [练习三]

  将以下句子译成英文,都用现在进行式:

  1.他在看电影。

  2.我在游泳。

  3.她在和她妈妈打电话。

  4.他的哥哥在散步。

  5.我现在正在吃饭。

  6.我们在唱歌。

  7.他在弹钢琴。

  8.他在看一本小说。

  9.我在写一封信。

  10.他在跑步。

  [练习四]

  将下列句子译成英文,有的用现在式,有的用现在进行式:

  1.我爱你。

  2.我正在吃饭。

  3.他不是一个学生。

  4.我是一个老师。

  5.他正在唱歌。

  6.他在游泳。

  7.他喜欢游泳。

  8.他会唱歌。

  9.他正在唱歌。

  10.他的爸爸是一个医生。

  11.他的爸爸在美国。

  12.我正在洗澡。

  13.他正在睡觉。

  14.你的姊姊在骑脚踏车。

  15.你的姊姊每天骑脚踏车上学。

  第三章 过去式和过去进行式

  3§1 过去式

  过去式是指过去所发生的事,举例来说,假如我昨天去看了一场电影,我就可以说

  I went to see a movie yesterday.

  以下全部是正确的句子:

  I saw your father last night.

  I met your son last month.

  I ate three apples this morning.

  He went to church to pray last night.

  可是,我们必须非常小心,因为一不小心,我们就可能犯了大错,我们如果要向情侣表示爱情,当然说

  I love you.

  如果我们说

  I loved you.

  事情就可能闹大了,因为这表示我过去曾经爱过你,可是现在已经不爱了。〝I loved you〞等于是〝I loved you before. But I do not love you now.〞

  假如我们看过一个小男孩然后我们说

  He was a good boy.

  那就是说他现在已不是一个好男孩了,变成了一个不乖的孩子,或者他已经死了。

  英文里的过去式常常是侦探用来破案的线索。有一次,有一个母亲,向警察报案,说她的女儿失踪了,她在记者面前,声泪俱下地说

  She was such a nice girl.

  警察马上觉得这位母亲有问题,因为她不该用过去式的,用了过去式,表示女儿已经死了,可是母亲不是说她失踪了吗?为什么她用过去式,极有可能因为她知道她女儿已经死了,才脱口而出,用了过去式。警察因此怀疑母亲本人就是凶手,事实也果真如此:这位母亲打自己的女儿,出手太重,将女儿打死了,谎报女儿失踪,她用了过去式,使警察知道她有问题。整个案子的侦破,就在于过去式。

  我们因此不能轻易用过去式,但我们也千万要注意,该用过去式的时候,一定要用过去式,以下句子都是错的:

  *I go to school yesterday.

  *I see a movie last night.

  *My mother comes to see me last month.

  *I eat three apples this morning.

  *He is happy yesterday.

  以上句子的正确写法是:

  I went to school yesterday.

  I saw a movie last night.

  My mother came to see me last month.

  I ate three apples this morning.

  He was happy yesterday.

  [练习五]

  将以下中文句子翻成英文,全部用过去式:

  1.我昨天参加了一个舞会。

  2.他的哥哥昨天打电话给我。

  3.我去年到美国去。

  4.昨夜我遇到你的姊姊。

  5.我写了一封信给你。

  6.我今晨吃了一个蛋。

  7.他昨夜整夜跳舞。

  8.我们昨天跑了五千公尺。

  9.他昨夜非常疲倦。

  10.他昨夜去台北探访他的爸爸。

  [练习六]

  将下列的句子译成英文句子,有的用现在式,有的用过去式:

  1.他是一个强壮的男孩。

  2.他昨天生病了。

  3.他每天吃一个苹果。

  4.他昨天吃了三个苹果。

  5.我喜欢看电影。

  6.我是个快乐的人。

  7.昨天我看了两场电影。

  8.他昨天寄了一封信给你。

  9.他常常抽烟。

  10.我每天读圣经。

  11.他昨天没有念圣经。

  12.他昨天没有游泳。

  [练习七]

  将以下句子译成英文,用现在式,现在进行式或过去式:

  1.他在打篮球。

  2.他喜欢打篮球。

  3.他昨天打篮球。

  4.他每天骑脚踏车上学。

  5.他昨天骑脚踏车到乡下去。

  6.我喜欢唱歌。

  7.他正在唱歌。

  8.你的爸爸昨天来看我。

  9.他的哥哥每天步行二公里。

  10.他的弟弟是个好孩子。

  11.他去年非常虚弱。

  12.他正在打电话。

  13.他每天都努力工作(work hard)。

  14.你的弟弟喜欢游泳。

  15.他过去是个好学生。

  3§2 过去进行式

  过去进行式和现在进行式有点类似,只是verb to be要用过去式的。可是有一点不同,过去进行式,很少单独用的,而常和另一句子一齐用。举例来说以下的中文句子:

  我昨天去看你的时候,你正在打篮球,如译成中文,就是

  You were playing basketball when I went to see you yesterday.

  以下是典型的过去进行式用法

  I was taking a bath when you called.

  I was watching TV when you came to see me.

  They were dancing when the teacher came in.

  They were singing in the station when the train arrived.

  Mr. Brown was cleaning his house when his son came home.

  总而言之,过去进行式通常牵涉到几件事,这两件事同时发生,其中一件事用过去式,另一件事用过去进行式

  [练习八]

  将以下句子译成英文,其中一部份使用过去进行式:

  1.他昨天到学校去的时候,天在下雨。

  2.当火车停下的时候,他在看报(read newspaper)。

  3.当火车进站的时候,他们在唱歌。

  4.我昨天去他家的时候,他在和他爸爸打电话。

  5.昨天晚上八点钟,我在家看电视。

  6.当我爸爸昨晚打电话给我的时候,我正在刷牙(brush my teeth)。

  7.当我昨晚打电话给他时,他在游泳。

  8.当这猫走进来的时候,那只狗在睡觉。

  9.当他弟弟回家的时候,他在拉小提琴。

  10.当我爸爸回家的时候,我妈妈在烧饭。

  [练习九]

  填充

  1. I (be) a Christian.

  2. He (be) a Catholic when he was a child.

  3. I (go) to see my mother yesterday.

  4. I (like) to play piano.

  5. He (eat) now.

  6. It (rain) now.

  7. He (walk) to school every day.

  8. He (walk) now.

  9. He (be) a good boy.

  10. He (swim) when I called him.

  11. He (go) to see his mother yesterday.

  12. I (take) a bath when my mother called me.

  13. I (like) to swim.

  14. I (like) to swim when I was young. Now, I don‘t because I am too old.

  15. It (rain) now.

  16. It (rain) when I drove to work yesterday.

  17. It (rain) last night.

  18. It (rain)very often here.

  19. He (read) a book when I went to see him yesterday.

  20. I (be) a student when I was young. Now I am a teacher.

  [练习十]

  改正以下句子的错误

  *They are driving when I went to see them yesterday.

  *It rained here very often in Taipei.

  *He gives his book to his brother last month.

  *He go to work every morning.

  *He likes to told stories.

  *I like to went to church.

  *The sun sets now.

  *They are play the piano now.

  *I am love you.

  *He were a good student before.

  *He goes to church last Sunday.

  *It rains last night.

  *I am playing when you called.

  *It is raining when I drove to work last night.

  *He do not know me.

  *I were swimming when my mother came.

  *They is singing now.

  *He do not like to swim.

  *He always wear a black coat.

  *He is watch TV now.

  第四章 完成式(Perfect Tense)

  4§1 现在完成式(Present Perfect Tense)

  完成式的形式是 verb to have + past participle,每一个动词,都有过去式和过去分词,以下就是一些例子:

  原式 过去式 过去分词(past participle)

  go went gone

  come came come

  see saw seen

  do did done

  watch watched watched

  get got gotten(或got)

  have had had

  use used used

  buy bought bought

  listen listened listened

  draw drew drawn

  paint painted painted

  leave left left

  arrive arrived arrived

  dance danced danced

  kill killed killed

  write wrote written

  run ran run

  swim swam swum

  snow snowed snowed

  eat ate eaten

  love loved loved

来源:考试大
责任编辑:chenyi

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